Introduction To Frozen Dough Technology

After working for years in the frozen dough industry, supplying frozen products to bakeries, cafes and restaurants, I had the chance and the pleasure to get quite a lot of experience in the production of good quality frozen dough. A good quality frozen dough product is a product which, after having been frozen for up to 6 months, still comes out of the oven as beautiful, appetising, attractive to the eyes and tasty as a fresh product. So it gives me a great pleasure to share with you some of the secrets about frozen dough production.

First don’t get mixed up with “Retarded Dough System” and “Frozen Dough Technology”. Those are two different ways of processing the dough, the first one is very simple and the second one is very much more elaborate.
– The Retarded Dough System is just normal dough that we place in a normal freezer, to be used up at a later time, may be 1, 2, or 3 days later. This dough loses some of its performance capability during the freezing process and cannot be kept frozen for more than a few days only. This is just a convenient process that we can use in some short term situations.
– The Frozen Dough Technology on the other hand is a very detailed and specific way of processing the dough, that enable the user to get the optimum performance out of the dough which has been frozen for a longer period of time. This period of time could be from just a few weeks to a few months; 6 months being regarded as a maximum for a live dough containing yeast. This is exactly what this article is all about.

First, how many kinds of frozen dough processes can we differentiate?
1) Ready to Prove Frozen Dough, good for most yeast dough and puff pastry as well.
2) Ready to Bake Frozen Dough, recommended especially for croissant and Danish pastry items.
3) Part Baked Frozen Dough, good for bread items, not recommended for croissant, Danish pastry items, and sweet bread and bun items.
4) Full Baked Frozen Dough, good for sweet bread/bun and soft roll, not recommended for bread, croissant, Danish pastry and puff pastry items.
5) Raw Frozen Dough Ready to Bake (Proving in the oven), not available yet, new technology still under intense research and development.

Critical points to succeed in frozen dough preparation
1) Make sure that the fermentation process does not start at any stage during the production.
To achieve that: one must control the temperature of the dough during all the different stages of the process, from the very beginning (mixing) to the very end (proving baking).
Ideally dough temperature must not exceed 16C (61F) during the mixing, dividing and filling of the products.
After the blast freezing procedure the ideal storage temperature is from -18C (64F) TO -22C (72F).

2) To keep the dough temperature under 16C (61F), at all time during processing, is the most difficult part and to achieve this goal we need to:
a) Keep the room temperature at between 16C (61F) and 20C (68F).
b) Use cold flour. Before use, the flour should be stored in a chiller (+4C) (39F).
c) Use cold water from a chiller or a water cooler.
d) Replace 25% of the liquid used (water/milk) with ice flakes. Or if ice flakes are not available the use of icy cold water (+2C) (35F) is recommended.
e) Work the dough straight away from the mixer without or with as little rest as possible between the different stages.
f) Freeze the dough, after shaping and filling, as fast as possible and this is when we need a blast freezer to freeze the product very fast up to the core. Why do we need to freeze the dough as fast as possible? The answer is: To bring the temperature deep inside the products to around -8C (17F) to -15C (5F) very fast, around 10 to 30 minutes, depending of the size of the products. This way the ice crystals formed during the freezing process are very small and do not damage the dough structure. If the freezing process is too long (from 3 to 6 hours with a conventional freezer) the crystals formed inside the dough are very big and will damage the yeast and the gluten structure. Then in this case the product will be very long to prove and will not rise to its maximum desired size, this is typically a low quality frozen dough.

Now looking at each kind of frozen dough processes one by one, we can say that for bread items the part baked system is the best and gives very good results. For croissant and Danish pastry items (as well as bread items) the ready to bake system gives outstanding results, but demands strict supervision, good equipment and premise.

Regarding the ingredients used in the production of frozen dough, they are almost the same as for the normal type of dough except two slight differences.
First, the yeast. Instant yeast and fresh yeast are both good to use but we always have better results with fresh yeast, products are faster to prove with more oven spring as well. Also when it comes to the quantity of yeast used, we have to increase it quite a lot (up to 2 to 3 times the normal quantity) to compensate of the yeast dying during the freezing process.
Second, the dough/bread improver used should be a special kind of improver for frozen dough only. There are many brands available on the market.

Hopefully this article has given you some useful things to think about before you start mixing the dough and I really hope you enjoyed this introduction to the process of frozen production.

Clean Room Technology Then And Now

The principle of Clean room design starts from almost 150 years ago when these units were used for bacterial control in hospitals. Today, clean rooms have completed a long way and developed to the modern technology. In earlier day, these clean rooms were designed for fulfilling the requirement of clean environment for industrial manufacturing during 1950s and the same clean rooms are also used for variety of applications in many industries.

A clean room is defined as a place that provides attentively controlled environment that has a low level of environmental pollutants such as airborne microbes, dust, chemical vapors, and aerosol particles. When the air entered in a clean room it is filtered and then continuously circulated through high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) or ultra-low particulate air (ULPA) filters. These filters are used to remove internally generated contaminants. The persons, who work inside the clean room, wear protective clothing while enter and exit through airlocks, while equipment and furniture inside the clean room is specially designed to produce minimal particles.

Today, more than 30 different industry segments utilize clean rooms including semiconductor and other electronic components, pharmaceutical, and biotechnology industries.

Modern clean rooms were developed during the Second World War to improve the quality and reliability of instrumentation used in manufacturing guns, tanks and aircraft. During this time, HEPA filters were also developed to contain the dangerous radioactive, microbial or chemical contaminants that resulted from experiments into nuclear fission, as well as research into chemical and biological warfare.

On the other hand, clean rooms for manufacturing and military purposes were being developed; the importance of ventilation for contamination control in hospitals was being realized. The use of ventilation in a medical setting gradually became standard practice during this time.

The concept of laminar flow was introduced during 1950s and 1960s, when NASAs space travel program was initiated. This marked a turning point in clean room technology and from this time, the evolution of clean rooms gained momentum.

In the late 1950s, the Sandia Corporation (which later became Sandia National Laboratories) began investigating the excessive contamination levels found in clean rooms. Researchers found that clean rooms were being operated at the upper practical limits of cleanliness levels and identified a need to develop alternative clean room designs.

In 1961, Professor Sir John Charnley and Hugh Howorth, showed a tremendous improvement in unidirectional airflow by creating a downward flow of air from a much smaller area of the ceiling, directly over the operating table.

Also in 1961, the first standard written for clean rooms, known as Technical Manual TO 00-25-203, was published by the United States Air Force. This standard considered clean room design and airborne particle standards, as well as procedures for entry, clothing and cleaning.

In 1962, Patent No. 3158457 for the laminar flow room was issued. It was known as an ultra clean room.
By 1965, there have been several vertical down flow rooms were used in which the air flow ranged between 15 m (50 ft)/min and 30 m (100 ft)/min. It was during this time that the specification of 0.46 m/s air velocity and the requirement for 20 air changes an hour became the accepted standard.

By the early 1970s the principle of laminar flow had been translated from the laboratory to wide application in production and manufacturing processes.

The 1980s saw continued interest in the development of the clean room. By this stage, clean room technology had also become of particular interest to food manufacturers.

In 1987, a patent was filed for a system of partitioning the clean room to allow zones of particularly high-level cleanliness. This improved the efficiency of individual clean rooms by allowing areas to adopt different degrees of cleanliness according to the location and need.

In 1991, a patent was filed for a helmet system that can be used in a medical clean room in which the user is protected from contaminated air in the environment, while the patient is protected from contaminated air being exhausted from the users helmet. Such a device decreases the possibility of operating room personnel being contaminated with viruses carried by the patients being operated upon.
The pace of clean room technology transformation has accelerated over recent years. Since the year 2000, there have been significant advances in new clean room technology, which have helped to streamline manufacturing and research processes, while also reducing the risk of contamination. Most of the technological developments of the past decade have been directed towards the manufacture of sterile products, particularly aseptically filled products.

In 2003, Eli Lilly pioneered the development of a new system for the prevention and containment of cross contamination during the manufacture of pharmaceutical powders using a specially designed fog cart. This allows the operator to be covered by an exceptionally fine fog of water on exit from a critical area, virtually eliminating the risk of transferring dust traces beyond their proper confines.

The Future of Clean Rooms
Today, clean rooms are used in variety of applications. The presence of these units can be seen in the manufacturing of semiconductor and other electronic components, as well as in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Furthermore clean room technology has more recently been applied to micro- and Nano-system processes, and this looks certain to be an area of growth in coming years. The development of clean room technology is likely to continue to be driven by certain key factors including the increasingly technical use of exotic physical and biological phenomena, the central role of increasingly fine structures, the creation and use of materials of the highest purity, and the increasingly broad-based utilization of biotechnology. Given the scale of these challenges, clean room technology looks set to remain indispensable to production in coming years.

Call Pakistan Avail Voip Technology To Enjoy Free Calls

The first thing which comes in mind while making international calls is the ‘money’ involved in it. Individuals always complete their calls in a very short period of time due to the expensive cost that made them unsatisfied. This unsatisfactory element has made people frustrated of not making calls for a longer time to their beloved ones because of high price and that is why Internet phone service has been introduced to eliminate all the barriers of long distance communication be it cost or obstacles. Technology has developed VoIP calls all over the world, the user can easily access its services siting at any corner of world including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh etc. This latest revolution in telecommunication world has changed the way the world communicates.

No matter where the user is, he can easily forward the call to any destination as per his wish. For instance, the user can make cheap VoIP calls to Pakistan without affecting their pockets. Now, the users enjoy PC to PC calls or PC to phone calls at low rates in a hassle free manner. This facility allows users to be in touch with relatives and friends who are staying in Pakistan or at any part of the world. The availability of internet has made it possible for people to make calls to Pakistan at any time in a cost effective manner. The user can also send SMS to multiple friends along with making cheap VoIP calls to Pakistan. The best part VoIP calls is that users will never have to bother about bad voice reception. It is one of the trust worthy service of making international calls.

The user can grab distinct cheap calling plans for making international calls, be it for Pakistan or India. There are many calling plans available in the market. The user can select the plan as per his budget. The consumer can enjoy calling plans to Pakistan by paying very less amount of money.

This highly advanced VoIP technology has given lots of benefit to users along with umpteen calling options like caller id, call divert, call conference etc. The users can easily stay connected to close ones without even thinking about the phone bills. The PC phone calls being doable in nature because of huge contribution of technology. In order to make cheap PC to phone calls, the user just need an Internet connection and a phone. The same with mobile calls, the user need a handset along with a broadband connection. The international calling becomes much easier after the introduction of internet phone service. Moreover, VoIP call rates are very reasonable that anyone can easily afford it. So lets join VoIP family to avail the wonderful calling services.

Get Sound Advice About Solar Technology From Professionals Who Know!

There may be little debate that solar energy can be a topic of intense interest to many. Inadequate people appear to have a complete understanding of all of the methods solar power can boost their daily lives, however. Keep reading to get a better grasp from the true potential solar energy offers.If you fail to afford an entire-scale solar powered energy system, consider investing in a smaller one. Some vendors offer small systems made to power a hot water heater or a generator. By powering more appliances with solar panel systems, this small investment should help save money within the next several years and you could easily expand your solar energy system.

Try to have any tax deductions for doing so if you are a business owner and also you are considering switching your energy system to renewable solar power. Quite often government entities will offer you incentives to companies who consent to switch to some more green power source. Since the energy crisis, solar has become a frequent energy source. Folks have been putting solar panels on their roofs since the 1970s. Houses have been powered in this fashion even if it is alongside traditional energy sources. It is becoming more common for homeowners to be running their whole house with their solar panels. Batteries can supply power at night as opposed to when you have the benefit of the daytime. Doing this, non-renewable power is never utilized.

It is possible to depend on solar energy panels. They don’t have moving pieces, then when you acquire a system, you can be sure that you simply will not must fix anything or buy any new parts. It takes almost no effort on your part to produce enough energy to power your house, making these systems an extremely attractive option for most of us.

Consider your home’s outside design when considering solar technology. Having solar-powered pathway lights installed outside is an easy strategy to use solar powered energy in the home. Positioning it so that it can make use of the sun’s rays can also be beneficial if you’re developing a home. Well-oriented homes filter during winter sun rays inside the south-facing windows and that can reduce heating bills.Photo-voltaic panels or perhaps a solar-powered hot water heater should help save a whole lot on your energy bills. Photo-voltraic panels work most effectively in areas that get 5 hours of direct sunlight daily. When you have a pool area that you just warm, solar water heating can significantly decrease your heating costs, especially.An alternate kind of solar panel recently developed is actually a photovoltaic panel. This kind of panel uses the sun’s energy to generate electricity. This electricity enables you to power anything in your home that is certainly uses it, or it may be saved in batteries. These panels can be considerably more expensive than the original solar cell.

Hopefully after reading this post, your doubts about solar powered energy have left. The technology behind solar powered energy is really advanced that it could power your house a whole bunch more. Rather than feeling doubtful, it is possible to feel hopeful about solar power. Keep this in mind article and prepare to permit solar technology work for you.

Advances In Microscope Technology Means Clearer Results

Microscopes have come an unbelievably long way since they were first developed in the late 16th century. While Antonie van Leeuwenhoek is often credited with being the creator of the first microscope, it was actually one of two optics pioneers who is the real father of the instrument: Zacharias Jansen or Hans Lippershey. Of the three, it is Lippershey who is most widely considered to be its inventor, an idea which is especially credible given that he was also the designer of the first modern-style telescope. Leeuwenhoek would not be born for nearly half a century after the earliest models were first built.

The microscopes of van Leeuwenhoek’s invention provided at best 275 x magnification. For its time it was truly impressive and broke new ground, enabling a host of scientific discoveries and advancing scientific knowledge and medicine in almost every way imaginable. Today of course, even many inexpensive of microscopes are capable of much higher levels of magnification and a variety of new microscopy technologies are available to allow scientists, physicians and researchers to get a close up look at the invisible world around us.

Optics have increased in sophistication by orders of magnitude in the last four centuries, with the lenses being used in microscopes being immeasurably improved and more powerful with every passing year. It’s not only in the design of the lenses used that microscopy has advanced – there are an array of new technologies behind the magnification power of the modern laboratory microscope.

Over the long history of these instruments, we have seen them advance to having a single objective to multiple objectives, the addition of adjustable viewing stages, improved focus mechanisms and the development of the stereomicroscope (actually two microscopes which focus on a single point rather than being one microscope with two lenses).

Microscope illumination has advanced by leaps and bounds along the way. From the earliest days of microscopy when illumination would have meant sunlight or perhaps candles, we have progressed to an age where we have not just high power microscope lenses with magnification power of up to 1000x, but illumination to light the slide from below (known as bright field microscopy) and illumination technologies which exclude scattered light to allow the observer a view of the specimen on the slide and nothing else (a method called dark field microscopy which is also used in non-optical microscopy).

Not only have optical microscopes made progress which would be unimaginable to Hans Lippershey, but there are now microscopy technologies which do not rely on optics and provide us with an incredibly powerful tool for looking deep within the natural world. Electron microscopy has been able to show us the microscopic world in greater detail and at magnifications which go beyond anything van Leeuwenhoek would have dreamed; as high as 1,000,000,000x by using a carefully directed electron particle beam to produce high resolution images.

From the lenses used in modern high power microscopes to stereomicroscopy, advances in microscope illumination and electron microscopy and other non-optical instruments, the history of the microscope has been one stunning advance after another. With each improvement comes new insight and revelations about the world around us. In an uncertain world, one thing that can be counted on is that these instruments will continue to progress and amaze us with the discoveries they facilitate.